Thalassemia disorder : Types, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Thalassemia disorder :-

  • Thalassemia disorder is one type of blood disorder or inherited disorder and in this disorder body make abnormal form of hemoglobin.

Introduction of Thalassemia disorder :-

  • Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen (O2).
  • In this disorder excessive destruction of RBCs.
  • And destruction of RBCs leads to the anemia.
  • In this condition human body doesn’t have healthy blood cells.
  • Thalassemia disorder is inherited disorder that means it comes to parents.
  • And it is also comes from genetic mutation or deletion mutation.
  • There are two form of this disorder such as minor and major disorder.
  • Minor disorder is less serious then major disorder.

Types of Thalassemia disorder :-

  • There are three types of thalassemia disorder.
  1. Beta thalassemia
  2. Alpha thalassemia
  3. Minor thalassemia

    Thalassemia disorder
    Thalassemia disorder


  1. Beta thalassemia :-

  • Beta thalassemia appear when human body cannot produce beta globin.
  • In this disorder two gene from parents are inherited to make beta globin.
  • There are two type of beta thalassemia.
  1. Thalassemia major is also known as cooleys anemia.
  • Cooleys anemia or thalassemia major is most severe form of beta thalassemia.
  • Thalassemia major develops when one beta globin genes are missing in person.
  • Symptoms of thalassemia major is normally occurs in second child.
  • Other symptoms of thalassemia major such as fussiness, paleness, frequent infections and jaundice.
  • In thalassemia major patients have requires regular blood transfusion.
  1. Thalassemia intermedia is less severe then thalassemia major.
  • Thalassemia intermedia is develops when both beta globin genes are missing in person.
  • In this thalassemia patients does not need blood transfusion.
  1. Alpha thalassemia :-

  • Alpha thalassemia appear in person when body cannot produce alpha globin gene.
  • Alpha thalassemia have also two types.
  1. Hemoglobin H disease appear in body when three alpha globin genes are missing.
  • Normally In this disease person have bone issue.
  • Other symptoms such as cheeks, forhead, jaundice and malnourishment.
  1. Hydrops fetalis is more severe then hemoglobin H disease.
  • This disease normally appear before birth of child.
  • In hydrops fetalis die child born or die before some time.
  • This condition occurs when all four alpha globin genes are missing in patients.
  1. Minor thalassemia :-

  • In thalassemia minor patients don’t have any symptoms and its also known as minor anemia.
  • This condition is also known as alpha and beta thalassemia minor.
  • In alpha thalassemia two globin genes are missing and In beta thalassemia only one globin gene is missing.
  • Hard to identified minor thalassemia because lack of symptoms.

Symptoms of thalassemia disorder :-

  • Symptoms of this disorder such as yellow or pale skin.
  • Late growth and development.
  • Dark urine, hard tiredness and fatigue.
  • Bone deformities especially on the face of patients.
  • In this disorder we didn’t see visible symptoms.
  • Symptoms of this disorder comes after childhood.

Diagnosis of thalassemia disorder :-

  • Using of blood sample.
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis is also used in the diagnosed to thalassemia.
  • Also diagnosed by physical examination.

Treatment of thalssemia disorder :-

  • The treatment of thalassemia disorder is depend on the severity of the disease.
  • We can treat by using of blood transfusion.
  • By bone marrow transplantation.
  • Can be treat by medications and supplements.
  • Also treat by possible surgery to remove the spleen.



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