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Thalassemia disorder : Types, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Thalassemia disorder :-
- Thalassemia disorder is one type of blood disorder or inherited disorder and in this disorder body make abnormal form of hemoglobin.
Introduction of Thalassemia disorder :-
- Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen (O2).
- In this disorder excessive destruction of RBCs.
- And destruction of RBCs leads to the anemia.
- In this condition human body doesn’t have healthy blood cells.
- Thalassemia disorder is inherited disorder that means it comes to parents.
- And it is also comes from genetic mutation or deletion mutation.
- There are two form of this disorder such as minor and major disorder.
- Minor disorder is less serious then major disorder.
Types of Thalassemia disorder :-
- There are three types of thalassemia disorder.
- Beta thalassemia
- Alpha thalassemia
- Minor thalassemia
Beta thalassemia :-
- Beta thalassemia appear when human body cannot produce beta globin.
- In this disorder two gene from parents are inherited to make beta globin.
- There are two type of beta thalassemia.
- Thalassemia major is also known as cooleys anemia.
- Cooleys anemia or thalassemia major is most severe form of beta thalassemia.
- Thalassemia major develops when one beta globin genes are missing in person.
- Symptoms of thalassemia major is normally occurs in second child.
- Other symptoms of thalassemia major such as fussiness, paleness, frequent infections and jaundice.
- In thalassemia major patients have requires regular blood transfusion.
- Thalassemia intermedia is less severe then thalassemia major.
- Thalassemia intermedia is develops when both beta globin genes are missing in person.
- In this thalassemia patients does not need blood transfusion.
Alpha thalassemia :-
- Alpha thalassemia appear in person when body cannot produce alpha globin gene.
- Alpha thalassemia have also two types.
- Hemoglobin H disease appear in body when three alpha globin genes are missing.
- Normally In this disease person have bone issue.
- Other symptoms such as cheeks, forhead, jaundice and malnourishment.
- Hydrops fetalis is more severe then hemoglobin H disease.
- This disease normally appear before birth of child.
- In hydrops fetalis die child born or die before some time.
- This condition occurs when all four alpha globin genes are missing in patients.
Minor thalassemia :-
- In thalassemia minor patients don’t have any symptoms and its also known as minor anemia.
- This condition is also known as alpha and beta thalassemia minor.
- In alpha thalassemia two globin genes are missing and In beta thalassemia only one globin gene is missing.
- Hard to identified minor thalassemia because lack of symptoms.
Symptoms of thalassemia disorder :-
- Symptoms of this disorder such as yellow or pale skin.
- Late growth and development.
- Dark urine, hard tiredness and fatigue.
- Bone deformities especially on the face of patients.
- In this disorder we didn’t see visible symptoms.
- Symptoms of this disorder comes after childhood.
Diagnosis of thalassemia disorder :-
- Using of blood sample.
- Hemoglobin electrophoresis is also used in the diagnosed to thalassemia.
- Also diagnosed by physical examination.
Treatment of thalssemia disorder :-
- The treatment of thalassemia disorder is depend on the severity of the disease.
- We can treat by using of blood transfusion.
- By bone marrow transplantation.
- Can be treat by medications and supplements.
- Also treat by possible surgery to remove the spleen.