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Polio virus : Introduction, Transmission, Diagnosis and Treatment
Polio virus :-
- Polio virus is causative agent poliomyelitis. This virus is one type of human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae.
Introduction of Polio virus :-
- Poliovirus is normally generated by the RNA genome and protein capsid.
- Genus of enterovirus is belongs to the positive sense single stranded RNA viruses.
- And this virus is associated with different human and mammalian disease.
- Picornavirus is belong to family of the Picornaviridae.
- This virus is small, non-enveloped and positive stranded RNA virus with an icosahedral capsid.
- Size of picornavirus is about 30nm in diameter.
- Positive stranded RNA virus is encoded with mRNA (messenger RNA) and protein.
- Replication in positive sequence of RNA viruses is via through a negative sequence intermediate.
- Icosahedral capsid is the protein shell of the virus.
- This capsid contain different oligomeric structural subunits made up of proteins it’s called protomers.
Transmission of poliovirus :-
- Polio disease normally occurs in summer.
- When person is infected by poliovirus, the virus inhabit in the intestinal tract and mucus in the nose and throat.
- Poliovirus transmission most often appears through contact with stool of this infected person.
- Less frequently, polio transmission can appear via through contact with respiratory saliva.
Symptoms of polio virus :-
- There are two type of symptoms include in the poliovirus.
- Non-paralytic polio symptoms
- Paralytic polio symptoms
Non-paralytic polio symptoms :-
- Non-paralytic polio symptoms are also known as absorptive poliomyelitis.
- Headache and sore throat
- Vomiting and Fatigue
- Back and neck pain
- Arm and leg stiffness
- Muscle tenderness and spasms
Paralytic polio symptoms :-
- This symptoms are very rare and affect to small percentage of humans.
- In starting symptoms of paralytic polio is related to the non-paralytic symptoms.
- Loss of muscle reflex.
- Severe muscle pain and spasms.
- Paralytic polio classified in three categories such as :
- Spinal polio :-
- In this polio virus destroy motor neurons in the spinal cord that cause paralysis in arms and legs.
- In this polio also problems on the breathing problems.
- Bulbar polio :-
- In this polio virus affect to the neurons in charge for sight, taste, swallowing and breathing.
- Bulbospinal polio :-
- This virus affect to both spinal cord and bulbar polio.
- Polio symptoms normally identified by neck and back stiffness, abnormal reflexes and problems in swallowing and breathing.
- Also detect by using of laboratory tools.
- Diagnosed by throat secretions.
- We also used stool sample and cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis.
- There two type vaccine are need in treatment of polio disease.
- Inactivated poliovirus (IPV)
- Oral polio vaccines (OPV)