Polio virus : Introduction, Transmission, Diagnosis and Treatment

Polio virus :-

  • Polio virus is causative agent poliomyelitis. This virus is one type of human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae.

Introduction of Polio virus :-

  • Poliovirus is normally generated by the RNA genome and protein capsid.
  • Genus of enterovirus is belongs to the positive sense single stranded RNA viruses.
  • And this virus is associated with different human and mammalian disease.
  • Picornavirus is belong to family of the Picornaviridae.
  • This virus is small, non-enveloped and positive stranded RNA virus with an icosahedral capsid.
  • Size of picornavirus is about 30nm in diameter.
  • Positive stranded RNA virus is encoded with mRNA (messenger RNA) and protein.
  • Replication in positive sequence of RNA viruses is via through a negative sequence intermediate.
  • Icosahedral capsid is the protein shell of the virus.
  • This capsid contain different oligomeric structural subunits made up of proteins it’s called protomers.

    Polio virus
    Polio virus

Transmission of poliovirus :-

  • Polio disease normally occurs in summer.
  • When person is infected by poliovirus, the virus inhabit in the intestinal tract and mucus in the nose and throat.
  • Poliovirus transmission most often appears through contact with stool of this infected person.
  • Less frequently, polio transmission can appear via through contact with respiratory saliva.

Symptoms of polio virus :-

  • There are two type of symptoms include in the poliovirus.
  1. Non-paralytic polio symptoms
  2. Paralytic polio symptoms


  1. Non-paralytic polio symptoms :-

  • Non-paralytic polio symptoms are also known as absorptive poliomyelitis.
  • Fever
  • Headache and sore throat
  • Vomiting and Fatigue
  • Back and neck pain
  • Arm and leg stiffness
  • Muscle tenderness and spasms
  • Meningitis
  1. Paralytic polio symptoms :-

  • This symptoms are very rare and affect to small percentage of humans.
  • In starting symptoms of paralytic polio is related to the non-paralytic symptoms.
  • Loss of muscle reflex.
  • Severe muscle pain and spasms.
  • Paralytic polio classified in three categories such as :
  1. Spinal polio :-
  • In this polio virus destroy motor neurons in the spinal cord that cause paralysis in arms and legs.
  • In this polio also problems on the breathing problems.
  1. Bulbar polio :-
  • In this polio virus affect to the neurons in charge for sight, taste, swallowing and breathing.
  1. Bulbospinal polio :-
  • This virus affect to both spinal cord and bulbar polio.

Diagnosis :-

  • Polio symptoms normally identified by neck and back stiffness, abnormal  reflexes and problems in swallowing and breathing.
  • Also detect by using of laboratory tools.
  • Diagnosed by throat secretions.
  • We also used stool sample and cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis.

Treatment :-

  • There two type vaccine are need in treatment of polio disease.
  1. Inactivated poliovirus (IPV)
  2. Oral polio vaccines (OPV)

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