Malaria – Introduction, symptoms, life cycle, diagnosis, cure full overview

Malaria :-

  • Malaria is a vector borne infectious disease that caused by protozoan parasites and it is extensive in tropical and subtropical regions.

Introduction of malaria :-

  • Malaria is a widely known human disease and it is infection of plasmodium virus.
  • Plasmodium virus is a protozoan parasites.
  • There are two host of this disease such as primary (female anopheles) and secondary (human).
  • Plasmodium virus is transmit person to person by female anopheles.
  • Symptoms of this disease can appear within weeks to months or even years.
  • There are four type of this disease
  1. Plasmodium falciparum
  • Plasmodium falciparum is very rarely found parasite.
  1. Plasmodium vivax
  • Mostly this parasite is caused this disease.
  1. Plasmodium ovale
  2. Plasmodium malariae
  • These two type of this disease are less commonly found.

Symptoms of malaria :-

  • High fever, sweating, headaches, nausea and vomiting are symptoms of this disease.
  • Sometimes in malaria few symptoms also seen such as diarrhea, anemia, muscle pain, chillis and fatigue.

Life cycle of plasmodium :-

Malaria
Malaria
  • The infectious stage of plasmodium parasite is sporozoite.
  • Sporozoite are found in the salivary glands of female mosquitoes.
  • Mosquitoes takes blood meal and released into humans blood and infect to liver cells.
  • Parasites enter in heparocyte (shiznot) and thousands of merozoites are present in shiznot.
  • Infected hepatocytes release about 30000 merozoites.
  • And then rapidly infect to red blood cells.
  • Then all blood cells are sucked by female anopheles.
  • After female anopheles transfer all infected blood cell into the gut line.
  • In gut line infected blood cells are combined with normal blood cells and transferred into sparozoite through salivary gland.

Diagnosis :-

  • Microscopic diagnosis.
  • Blood smear.
  • Fluroscent microscopy.
  • Antigen detection.
  • Immunochromatographic dipstic (RDT).
  • Using of serology.
  • Also used enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA).
  • Sometimes we used molecular diagnosis technique such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • In polymerase chain reaction we used real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Cure :-

  • Different drugs are used in the treatment of malaria such as clindamycin, mefloquine and deoxycycline.

 

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