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Malaria – Introduction, symptoms, life cycle, diagnosis, cure full overview
- Malaria is a vector borne infectious disease that caused by protozoan parasites and it is extensive in tropical and subtropical regions.
Introduction of malaria :-
- Malaria is a widely known human disease and it is infection of plasmodium virus.
- Plasmodium virus is a protozoan parasites.
- There are two host of this disease such as primary (female anopheles) and secondary (human).
- Plasmodium virus is transmit person to person by female anopheles.
- Symptoms of this disease can appear within weeks to months or even years.
- There are four type of this disease
- Plasmodium falciparum
- Plasmodium falciparum is very rarely found parasite.
- Plasmodium vivax
- Mostly this parasite is caused this disease.
- Plasmodium ovale
- Plasmodium malariae
- These two type of this disease are less commonly found.
Symptoms of malaria :-
- High fever, sweating, headaches, nausea and vomiting are symptoms of this disease.
- Sometimes in malaria few symptoms also seen such as diarrhea, anemia, muscle pain, chillis and fatigue.
Life cycle of plasmodium :-
- The infectious stage of plasmodium parasite is sporozoite.
- Sporozoite are found in the salivary glands of female mosquitoes.
- Mosquitoes takes blood meal and released into humans blood and infect to liver cells.
- Parasites enter in heparocyte (shiznot) and thousands of merozoites are present in shiznot.
- Infected hepatocytes release about 30000 merozoites.
- And then rapidly infect to red blood cells.
- Then all blood cells are sucked by female anopheles.
- After female anopheles transfer all infected blood cell into the gut line.
- In gut line infected blood cells are combined with normal blood cells and transferred into sparozoite through salivary gland.
- Microscopic diagnosis.
- Blood smear.
- Fluroscent microscopy.
- Antigen detection.
- Immunochromatographic dipstic (RDT).
- Using of serology.
- Also used enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA).
- Sometimes we used molecular diagnosis technique such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
- In polymerase chain reaction we used real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
- Different drugs are used in the treatment of malaria such as clindamycin, mefloquine and deoxycycline.